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ENGWORKS WHITEPAPERS

EngWorks whitepapers include important articles and news relating to hazardous area classification and hazardous locations.

 

IEC 60079-10-1 Classification of Areas - Explosive Atmospheres

Allan Bozek, P. Eng and Rob Kohuch, P. Eng
​Tutorial presented at the PCIC 2019 conference held in Vancouver, BC in September 2019.

 

Application of IEC 60079-10-1 Edition 2.0 for Hazardous Area Classification

Allan Bozek, P. Eng
​Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60079-10-1 Edition 2.0: Explosive Atmospheres—Part 10-1: Classification of Areas—Explosive Gas Atmospheres.  The IEC 60079-10-1 Ed. 2.0 document incorporates significant revisions from previous editions in both technical content and design approach to classifying hazardous locations where flammable gas or vapors may be present. The design concepts incorporated into the document are introduced with application guidance provided in the context of real-world examples.

 

Natural vs. Forced Ventilation in Process Modules Handling Flammable Fluids

Allan Bozek, P. Eng
This document compares the benefits of natural vs. forced ventilation in process modules handling flammable fluids.

 

Process Building Hazardous Area Classification Assessment Overview

Allan Bozek, P.Eng
This paper outlines Engworks' approach to assessing Hazardous Area Classification in accordance with the Canadian Electrical Code.

 

The Use of Combustible Gas Detection in Hazardous Locations

Allan Bozek, Tim Driscoll, Jon Miller, Vince Rowe and William Lawrence 
This document explores the use of combustible gas detection as a means of supplementary protection in hazardous locations. The use of combustible gas detection in the context of a hazardous area classification design is reviewed and its use as a means to interlock ignition capable equipment is discussed. IEC and North American codes, standards and recommended practices are referenced. A case example is provided to illustrate the use of concepts presented.

 

The Use of Vapourtight Barriers As Basis for Hazardous Area Classification Design

Allan Bozek, Lin Duquette, Allen Gibson and Robert Seitz
This paper explores the use of vaportight barriers as basis for classifying hazardous locations. It reviews the industry accepted definition of "vaportight" in accordance with standards and recommended practices and provides considerations for the specification, design and construction of a vapor barriers. It also provides a test criteria and methods for verifying the integrity of a vapor barrier and provides guidance on installing doors, conduit, cables and piping penetrations through vapor barriers. A case example is provided to illustrate implementation of the concepts covered.

 

Modular Integration of Process Equipment Packages for Oil and Gas Facilities

Allan Bozek and Allen Gibson
An integrated design approach to a modular process equipment package is discussed. By incorporating the electrical, instrumentation and control equipment on the same platform as the process equipment, a higher level of modular integration is achieved. The benefits include a reduced number of on-site equipment terminations and the ability to pre-commission equipment prior to field installation. The area classification, installation and transit barrier requirements for an integrated modular design approach are reviewed. 

 

Electrical Hazardous Area Classification as a Basis for Safer Operations

Allan Bozek, Cecil Gordon and Niki Phillips
The use of Electrical Hazardous Area Classification drawings as a basis for communicating the degree and extent of explosive hazards within industrial facilities is explored. Existing occupational health and safety regulations are referenced to determine a link between operational activities and the use of electrical hazardous area classification drawings as a tool for hazard assessment and management. How the drawings may be used to improve worker safety in a process facility is discussed. A case study is presented.

 

Cellular Phones in Class I, Division 2/Zone 2 Hazardous Locations

Allan Bozek, Ken Martin and Marty Cole
The risk associated with using a portable cellular phone in a class I, division 2 or zone 2 hazardous location is evaluated. Experimental trials were performed on a representative sample of commercial grade cellular phones using the guidelines provided in ISA-RP12.12.03-2002 "Recommended Practice for Portable Electronic Products Suitable for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, Class I Zone 2 and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations" (2002). The ignition risks are subsequently classified according to a framework ranking system for ignition sources developed by Rew and Spenser (1997). The results are used to construct a probability model that estimates the risk of a cell phone igniting a flammable atmosphere in a class I, division 2 or class I, zone 2 hazardous location. 

 

Flammable Mixture Analysis for Hazardous Area Classification

Allan Bozek and Vince Rowe
The properties of flammable mixtures as they apply to a hazardous area classification analysis are discussed. Mathematical formulas and application rules of thumb are provided to help estimate the relative density, group classification, autoignition temperature, material flashpoint, and flammability of a mixture. Application guidelines are provided on how to apply the results in the context of a hazardous area classification analysis.

 

The Use of Infrared Emission Detection and Fugitive Emission Detection Technologies as a Basis for a Hazardous Area Classification Design

Allan Bozek, Joshua Anhalt and Jonathan Chin
The use of Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) detection technology as a basis for a Hazardous Area Classification is described. Methods for identifying fugitive emission leaks using NDIR technology, quantifying leak data and applying the results to document the basis for a hazardous area classification are presented. Limitations associated with the technology are also defined. A case history of a gas and oil production facility is provided to illustrate how a hazardous area classification design may be implemented using the technology.

 
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